Tuesday, 9 January 2018

Har Gobind Khorana,protien synthesis

 Har Gobind Khorana


Har Gobind Khorana
Image result for hargovind khurana
BornJanuary 9, 1922
RaipurPunjabBritish India
DiedNovember 9, 2011 (aged 89)
Concord, MA
ResidenceBritish India
United States
United Kingdom
CitizenshipAmerican
Alma mater
Government College University (Lahore) ,
University of Liverpool
Known forFirst to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis
Awards
  • Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968)
  • Gairdner Foundation International Award (1980)
  • Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
  • ForMemRS (1978)
  • Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research
  • Padma Vibhushan
  • Willard Gibbs Award (1974)
Scientific career
FieldsMolecular biology
Institutions
  • MIT (1970–2007)
  • University of Wisconsin, Madison(1960–70)
  • University of British Columbia(1952–60)
  • University of Cambridge (1950–52)
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (1948–49)
Doctoral advisorRoger J.S. Beer
Doctoral studentsShiladitya DasSarma
Signature
Har Gobind Khorana signature
Khorana was born in Raipur, British India (today Kabirwala in Pakistan). He was the youngest of five children of Ganpat Rai Khorana, a taxation clerk, and Krishna Devi Khorana. He served on the faculty of the University of British Columbia from 1952-1960, where he initiated his Nobel Prize winning work. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966, and subsequently received the National Medal of Science. He co-directed the Institute for Enzyme Research, became a professor of biochemistry in 1962 and was named Conrad A. Elvehjem Professor of Life Sciences at University of Wisconsin–Madison.He served as MIT's Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry, Emeritus[10][11] and was a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute.

Research work

Subsequent research

He extended the above to long DNA polymers using non-aqueous chemistry and assembled these into the first synthetic gene, using polymerase and ligase enzymes that link pieces of DNA together,[13] as well as methods that anticipated the invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).These custom-designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for sequencing, cloning and engineering new plants and animals, and are integral to the expanding use of DNA analysis to understand gene-based human disease as well as human evolution. Khorana's invention(s) have become automated and commercialized so that anyone now can order a synthetic oligonucleotide or a gene from any of a number of companies. One merely needs to send the genetic sequence to one of the companies to receive an oligonucleotide with the desired sequence.

Personal Life

Har Gobind Khorana was born to parents Shrimati Krishna Devi Khorana, and Shri Ganpat Rai Khorana in Raipur, a little village in Punjab, which is now part of Pakistan. The correct date of his birth is not known; that shown in documents is January 9th, 1922. He was the youngest of a family of one daughter and four sons. His father was a «patwari», a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian government. His father was dedicated to educating his children, and they were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about 100 people. Har Gobind Khorana attended D.A.V. High School in Multan, West Punjab; Ratan Lal, one of his teachers, influenced him greatly during that period. Later, he studied at the Punjab University in Lahore where he obtained an M. Sc. degree. Mahan Singh, a great teacher and accurate experimentalist, was his supervisor.
A job offer in 1952 from Dr. Gordon M. Shrum of British Columbia (now Chancellor of Simon Fraser University, British Columbia) took him to Vancouver. The British Columbia Research Council offered at that time very little by way of facilities, but there was «the freedom», to use Dr. Shrum's words, to do what the researcher liked to do. During the following years, with Dr. Shrum's inspiration and encouragement and frequent help and scientific counsel from Dr. Jack Campbell (now Head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of British Columbia), a group began to work in the field of biologically interesting phosphate esters and nucleic acids. Among the many devoted and loyal colleagues of this period, there should, in particular, be mention of Dr. Gordon M. Tener (now a Professor in the Biochemistry Department of the University of British Columbia), who contributed much to the spiritual and intellectual well-being of the group.

Awards and honours

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